Java makes working with math straightforward and simple. It offers the usual arithmetic operators you expect, in addition to mathematical functions and properties so that we don't need to implement them ourselves. This lets us focus on the core logic of our application.

## Arithmetic Operators

**Arithmetic operators** are what you use to manipulate the value of numerical variables and numbers. Here are the ones you can use:

### Addition

` ````
// adding numbers
int cakes = 5;
int cookies = 7;
int total = cakes + cookies;
System.out.println("Total: " + total);
```

` ``Total: 12`

### Subtraction

` ````
// subtracting numbers
int cakes = 14;
int eaten = 7;
int total = cakes - eaten;
System.out.println("Total: " + total);
```

` ``Total: 7`

### Multiplication

` ````
// multiplying numbers
int cakes = 3;
int people = 7;
int total = cakes * people;
System.out.println("Total: " + total);
```

` ``Total: 21`

### Division

` ````
// dividing numbers
int cakes = 100;
int people = 5;
int total = cakes / people;
System.out.println("Total: " + total);
```

` ``Total: 20`

### Modulus

` ````
// modulus operator
int cakes = 100;
int people = 7;
int remainder = cakes / people;
System.out.println("Remainder: " + remainder);
```

` ``Total: 14`

### Order of Operations

**Order of Operations**, also known as **PEMDAS**, works just as you would expect, including parentheses:

` ````
// order of operations
int result = (5 * 6) + 40 / 2;
System.out.println("Result: " + result);
```

` ``Result: 50`

## Math Methods

Java offers many useful **math methods** for numbers that are commonly used in calculations.

### Absolute Value

Get the **absolute number** of a number using the

` ````
int number = -34;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.abs(number));
```

` ``Number: 34`

### Floor

Use the `floor`

method to round any number down to the nearest whole number:

` ````
double number = 856.234;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.floor(number));
```

` ``Number: 856.0`

### Ceiling

Use the `ceil`

method to round any number up to the nearest whole number:

` ````
double number = 856.234;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.ceil(number));
```

` ``Number: 857.0`

### Natural Logarithm

You can get the **natural logarithm** of a number using the `log()`

function:

` ````
int number = 43;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.log(number));
```

` ``Number: 3.7612001156935624`

### Base-10 Logarithm

You can get the **base-10 logarithm** of a number using the `log10()`

function:

` ````
int number = 43;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.log10(number));
```

` ``Number: 1.6334684555795864`

### Maximum

Get the highest value of a set of numbers using the `max()`

function:

` ````
int number1 = 53;
int number2 = 64;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.max(number1, number2));
```

` ``Number: 64`

### Minimum

Get the lowest value of a set of numbers using the `min()`

function:

` ````
int number1 = 53;
int number2 = 64;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.min(number1, number2));
```

` ``Number: 53`

### Power

You can calculate the value of one number risen to the power of another number using the `pow`

method:

` ````
int base = 5;
int exp = 4;
System.out.println("Number: " + Math.pow(base, exp));
```

` ``Number: 625.0`

### Random

You can get a **random number** between `0`

and `1`

using the `random()`

function:

` ````
double random = Math.random();
System.out.println("Random: " + random);
```

` ``Random: 0.5497127671041443`

You can then manipulate this value to do other things like getting a random number between two other numbers, like so:

` ````
int min = 4;
int max = 29;
double result = (Math.random() * ((max - min) + 1)) + min;
System.out.println("Result: " + result);
```

` ``Result: 9.63955715156336`

### Round

You can **round** a number to the nearest integer with `round()`

:

` ````
double value = 9.63955715156336;
long result = Math.round(value);
System.out.println("Result: " + result);
```

` ``Result: 10`

### Square Root

You can take the **square root** of a number using the `sqrt()`

function:

` ````
int value = 245;
double result = Math.sqrt(value);
System.out.println("Result: " + result);
```

` ``Result: 15.652475842498529`

That's all we got for math! 🤓🤓🤓