Math: Basic Operators, Arithmetic, and Methods

Math: Basic Operators, Arithmetic, and Methods

Python is used extensively in finance, simulation, data science, statistical analysis, and in many other mathematically-intensive fields of work. The reason being is that Python makes working with numbers very easy and intuitive.

You can't avoid math, but you knew that already, right?
You can't avoid math, but you knew that already, right?

Arithmetic Operators

Here are the most common arithmetic operators that allow you to manipulate numbers in Python.

Addition

	
    x = 2
    y = 5

    total = x + y
    print(total)
	
	
    7
	

Subtraction

	
    x = 8
    y = 3

    total = x - y
    print(total)
	
	
    5
	

Multiplication

	
    x = 4
    y = 6

    total = x * y
    print(total)
	
	
    24
	

Division

	
    x = 54
    y = 2

    total = x / y
    print(total)
	
	
    27.0
	

Modulus

	
    x = 64
    y = 23

    total = x % y
    print(total)
	

Exponents

	
    x = 2
    y = 4

    total = x ** y
    print(total)
	
	
    16
	

Order of Operations

Order of Operations, also known as PEMDAS, is at play here, including with the use of parentheses.

	
    x = (4 * 5) + 20 / 4
    print(x)
	

Python Number Types

There are three kinds of numbers in Python, and they are as followed:

  • int
  • float
  • complex
	
    a = 1337  # int
    b = 13.37 # float
    c = 1337j # complex

    print(type(a))
    print(type(b))
    print(type(c))
	
	
    <class 'int'>
    <class 'float'>
    <class 'complex'>
	

int

Integers are whole numbers like 4 or 532. They can be positive or negative, and they don't contain any decimals.

	
    a = 423
    b = 74
    c = 87937595
	

These are all valid integers.

Float

Floating point numbers are numbers containing a decimal, and can also be positive or negative. Here are some examples:

	
    a = 1.53
    b = 3.1
    c = -95.23
	

Complex

Complex numbers are Python's representation of imaginary numbers, and they use a j to represent the i.

	
    a = 4+2j
    b = 9j
    c = -3j
	

Number Type Conversion

Python offers built-in methods to convert between these types using the float(), int(), and complex() methods.

	
    a = 5   # int
    b = 3.3 # float
    c = 7j  # complex

    float = float(a)
    int = int(b)
    complex = complex(a)

    print(float)
    print(int)
    print(complex)

    print(type(float))
    print(type(int))
    print(type(complex))
	
	
    5.0
    3
    (5+0j)
    <class 'float'>
    <class 'int'>
    <class 'complex'>
	

Math Methods

We mentioned before that Python is used heavily in any field that utilizes math. The built-in methods that Python provides is a large reason why. Here are some of the most common ones:

Absolute Value

Get the absolute value of a number by using the abs() method:

	
    number = -34
    print(abs(number))
	
	
    34
	

Floor

Use the floor() method to get the number passed in rounded down to the nearest integer if it is not already an integer.

	
    import math

    number = 6.21
    print(math.min(number))
	
	
    6
	

Ceiling

Use the ceil() method to get the number passed in rounded up to the next highest integer if it is not already an integer.

	
    import math

    number = 6.21
    print(math.ceil(number))
	
	
    7
	

Natural Logarithm

You can get the natural logarithmn of a number using log().

	
    import math

    number = 123
    print(math.log(number))
	
	
    4.812184355372417
	

Base-10 Logarithm

Alternatively, you can also get the base-10 logarithm of a number using log10().

	
    import math

    number = 123
    print(math.log10(number))
	
	
    2.089905111439398
	

Maximum

You can get the maximum of two or more numbers using the max() method:

	
    number1 = 123
    number2 = 456
    number3 = 789
    print(max(number1, number2, number3))
	
	
    789
	

Minimum

You can get the minimum of two or more numbers using the min() method:

	
    number1 = 123
    number2 = 456
    number3 = 789
    print(min(number1, number2, number3))
	
	
    123
	

Power

You can take the power of a number using pow.

	
    base = 3
    exponent = 4
    print(pow(base, exponent))
	
	
    81
	

Round

You can round off any number to the nearest integer using round().

	
    number = 3.1459
    places = 3
    print(round(number, places))
	
	
    3.146
	

Square Root

You can take the square root of a number using sqrt().

	
    import math

    number = 81
    print(math.sqrt(number))
	
	
    9
	

Random

Generating random numbers in Python is easy. There's a module named random that has all we need. Call the randrange() method to get a number in between two other numbers you define:

	
    import random

    start = 1
    end = 10
    print(random.randrange(start, end))
	
	
    6
	

Math Constants

One last cool to point out is that Python's math module also comes with some predefined constants for us.

Euler's Number

One of the constants that the math module comes with is Euler's Number:

	
    import math

    e = math.e
    print(e)
	
	
    2.718281828459045
	

Pi

Python's math module also comes with a value for Pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle relative to its diameter.

	
    import math

    pi = math.pi
    print(pi)
	
	
    3.141592653589793
	

You've got to love some delicious pi. 🥧🥧🥧